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362. PROVOST MARSHAL.—Provost Marshals are of two kinds.  The strictly Military Provost Marshal is a Military Police officer, whose duty it is to suppress marauding and depredations, and to prevent all kinds of disturbances; to keep order and regulate drinking establishments and other resorts, and prevent drunkenness, and all kinds of disorders; to enforce orders with regard to the conduct of a camp or city, and regulations for the markets, hotels, taverns, and places of public amusement; to make searches, seizures, and arrests; to execute sentences of military courts, involving imprisonment and corporeal or capital punishment.

363. The Provost Marshal takes charge of all prisoners, whether captured from the enemy, or otherwise held; he arrests stragglers and other offenders of the command, and forwards them to their proper regiments and companies, with the written charges against them; he has the supervision of the passes of officers and soldiers, and signs the passes to citizens authorized within the lines for trade or other purposes; he investigates complaints of citizens arising from the conduct of the troops; and may have charge of scouts and spies employed in the command.

364. Such is the character of the duties that are usually assigned to the Provost Marshal, but usually only some part of them would fall to his lot at one time, unless at the headquarters of an army, where the Provost Marshal might have all the foregoing, and more too, to attend to.  It is only in time of war that a Provost Marshal is greatly needed, and then he is an officer of great importance, and should not be dispensed with, and he should be selected with reference to his fitness and capacity for the duty.

365. To establish a bureau to control the enrollment of the militia, the enlistment of volunteers and to execute the draft the Provost Marshal General’s Department was organized, first by the War Department, and subsequently by act of Congress. (G. O., No. 140, 1862; Act March 3rd, 1863, sec. 5.)  Provost Marshals were appointed for each Congressional District, each Territory, and the District of Columbia, and Deputy Provost Marshals to assist them were authorized, who, in addition to enrolling and drafting, were charged with the arrest and confinement of deserters, spies, and persons resisting or interfering with the enrollment or draft.

366. The District Provost Marshals were appointed from civil life, and were under the orders of the Provost Marshal of the State, and all received their orders and instructions from the Provost Marshal General at Washington.  This Provost Marshal system, improperly named, was called into existence by the necessity of raising large armies to suppress the rebellion, which being achieved, the necessity for such a bureau no longer exists, although there is no doubt a bureau where the enrollment of the male population of the country could be kept correctly, would be of vast assistance in the event of another war.

367. In the field the Provost Marshals were selected from the line officers, and varied in rank from Lieutenants to Generals.  They were attached to brigades, divisions, corps, and armies, and often local Provost Marshals for cities, towns, and districts, were appointed, and even detachments, operating independently for a few days, had their Provost Marshals for the time being to look after stragglers, marauders, and pillagers, and to take charge of prisoners.

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DETACHED SERVICE.

368. DETACHED Service and the Service of Detachments are frequently confounded.  Whilst the former is a general term, applicable to any duty which separates an officer from his command proper, the latter is applicable only to a fractional portion of any command, doing duty separate from the body to which it belongs, no matter whether in the field or garrison.

369. The Service of Detachments will be treated under the head of “Commanding Officer.”  Nearly all the duties that have already been described may constitute “Detached Service,” and are so reported on the returns and reports, when the officer is thereby separated from his command proper.  One important duty remains to be alluded to, that does not come under any of the heads already given, but may be introduced here as appropriately as elsewhere, under the head of “Recruiting Service.”

370. There are other duties which may fall to the lot of officers, under the head of “Detached Service,” that are not strictly military, and, therefore, out of place here, as the officer often is when called upon to perform them.  Such are special missions of a civil or diplomatic nature, and sometimes the duty may have a political bearing, wherein the officer is an unfortunate, or it may be a willing, agent of the Administration.

371. It is possible, however, for the duty to be very appropriate, although not military in its character.  Such would be negotiations with Indian tribes on the frontier, the survey of public lands, or other duty in connection with the public domain on remote frontiers.  The reconnaissance and selection of highways through unsettled regions.  Such matters have in times past been entrusted to officers of the Army, and may often be again in the future.

372. “All officers on detached service must report monthly to the commanders of their posts, of their regiments or corps, and to the Adjutant General, their stations, the nature of their duties, and the authority placing them thereon, likewise each change of address.” (Reg. 468.)  This report is made by letter in the following form:

FORT COLUMBUS, N.Y. HARBOR,

July 31st, 1865.

ADJUTANT GENERAL, U.S.A.,

Washington, D.C.

 

Sir: I have the honor to report that I am on duty at this port, with recruits awaiting transportation to the Department of the Pacific, in obedience to Special Orders No. 100, dated Headquarters Department of the East, July 20th, 1865.

 

Very respectfully,

            Your obedient servant,

                        A._______ B.______

                                    1st Lieut. _th Infantry.

373. RECRUITING SERVICE.—In order to keep up the Army a certain number of officers and men are detached from each regiment for the purpose of enlisting men in the service.  The different regiments each furnish a certain number of officers, according to the size of the regiment, to report to one or more field officers who are placed on duty at favorable points for depots.  The field officer is usually called a Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for a certain designated district.

374. A permanent Recruiting party, composed of noncommissioned officers and soldiers, who have seen long service, and who are noted for their military bearing and good conduct, and a proper proportion of musicians are kept at the depots, from which details are made to be sent to favorable points within the district.  The Recruits obtained by this plan are collected at the depots, and finally forwarded to regiments where most needed throughout the whole Army.  Officers and men on this duty are said to be on the General Recruiting Service, and the whole is under the direction of the Adjutant General at Washington.

375. In addition to the General Recruiting Service, Recruiting is also carried on regimentally.  The Commanding Officer of the Regiment is the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment; he details any number of officers as he may think necessary to recruit for the Regiment wherever it may be stationed.  Usually the Adjutant is the Recruiting officer at Regimental Headquarters, and if the Regiment is divided about at various posts, there is usually a Recruiting officer for each post, who performs that duty in addition to the other proper duties of his position.  The same principles and rules apply in both systems of Recruiting. (Reg. 985.)

376. Officers of the Recruiting Service must be well informed in all matters of accountability, as they have generally to account for all kinds of property, and to all the respective departments, including the Quartermaster, Commissary, Ordnance, and in addition the Adjutant General’s Department.  From the last he draws his Recruiting funds through the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service.  The same principles apply in the making of returns to these various departments as if he was an officer of each.

377. The regulations for the Recruiting Service are very complete, and no officer who devotes proper time and study can fail to understand them.  The general principles do not vary, but there are constant changes taking place in the details of enlistment as to the term, the bounty, the premium, the subsisting and clothing, etc., that require to be specially remembered.

378. The mode of raising troops also varies with the emergency.  The Regulations provide only for the raising of the Regular Army and for a time of peace.  In time of war special acts of Congress govern, or, in the absence of such acts, the temporary orders of the War Department.  Heretofore the people have, in the main, supplied the military force with men by voluntary enlistment.

379. The system of Regimental Recruiting is likely to be adopted.  Since the adoption of the three battalion formation, each Regiment of the new organization has a depot for its headquarters, where the invalided soldiers of the Regiment form the permanent party, the Commanding Officer of the Regiment acts as the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment, and the depot is the rendezvous from which the Regiment is kept supplied with men.

380. The old Regiments are still supplied as formerly.  There is a superintendent for the Artillery, Cavalry and Infantry each, and one or more depots as rendezvous are established throughout the country.  Fort Columbus, N.Y., has generally been the depot for the Infantry in the East, and Newport Barracks, Ky., in the West.  Carlisle Barracks has been the principal depot for the Cavalry.  The Artillery has always been favorably situated for recruiting, and no special depot has been organized for this arm.  Remote detachments of the Artillery arm have been generally supplied with men from the Infantry depot.

381. When a Lieutenant receives a detail for the Recruiting Service it is followed by an order to report to some superintendent from whom he receives his instructions as to where he shall establish his recruiting party.  He may have several auxiliary recruiting parties under his charge, each consisting of a non-commissioned officer, two privates and a drummer and fifer. (Reg. 913.)

382. The essential point in recruiting is to get good serviceable men; men who are not fit for soldiers are worse than no men at all.  Success in recruiting not only requires that the men shall be obtained, but they must be such men as are contemplated by the Regulations.  The duty must not be left exclusively to the men, the officer must be active and attentive himself, and not absent himself from his recruiting station without permission. (Reg. 925.)  Like every other duty, it requires attention, application and industry.

383. Recruits must not be enticed into the service by deception or fraud, nor should the recruit be permitted to exercise such means to get into the service.  The rules should be strictly observed in the examination of recruits, and the regulations concerning minors strictly carried out.  Married men are ordinarily, in time of peace, excluded from enlisting.  The oath should not be administered until the eligibility of the recruit has been fully established.  When the oath has been administered the recruit is duly enlisted.

384. The Recruiting Officer should be provided with clothing with which to supply his men, he must either have quarters and fuel and provisions furnished by the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments, or he must obtain them by contract. (Reg. 1204.)  Various ways are authorized by Regulations, all of which involve an accountability that the officer must fully comprehend, as he will be held strictly responsible.

385. He must provide medical attendance for the men when they get sick, if there is not a medical officer of the Army present to attend them. (Reg. 939.)  Physicians are not to be employed for the purpose of examining Recruits only; if it is necessary to employ a physician on account of sickness, he may also be required to examine Recruits as to their physical condition for the service. (Reg. 938.)

386. A variety of accounts are involved in the enlistment of soldiers which must be kept separate, to enable the auditing officer to give due credit to the various appropriations from which the accounts are paid, notwithstanding that the officer may be authorized to pay them from the Recruiting funds in his hands.  The general rules for making out accounts must be well studied and adhered to. (Reg. 963; Par. 395.)

387. In the case of a detachment of Recruits for a length of time the same duties and responsibilities that pertain to a Company Commander, are performed by the Commanding Officer of the detachment; like the Captain, he is accountable for the clothing, subsistence and instruction of the men; they should be supplied and governed in the same way the men of a company should be.

388. Great care is to be observed in the making of the original record of the Recruit; his correct name in full, age, and description, and a count of bounty, clothing, advance pay, etc., etc., correctly entered.  The man’s future history depends greatly upon the correctness of his descriptive roll, and, perhaps, a great deal of inconvenience may be saved him, for if his papers are not correct in this respect, it may stop his pay for a long time until his record, or what is now commonly called his descriptive list or roll, can be corrected.

389. It must be remembered that from the moment a soldier is enlisted, his military history should accompany him in the form of his descriptive list, and his immediate commander is made responsible for this.  He starts from the station where he was enlisted with it, and if it is wrong then it is likely to be wrong throughout until corrected.  Should the error continue for any great length of time it will be very difficult to correct it.

390. A descriptive book is required to be kept at each Recruiting station wherein the name of each Recruit is entered, and his history up to the time of his leaving the station, and then a copy of this record accompanies him to his new post.  This constitutes the usual muster and descriptive roll that is required to accompany every detachment of Recruits sent forward. (Reg. 982.)

391. The stationery and blank books required at a Recruiting station are purchased by the Recruiting officer.  The blanks, money, etc., for carrying on his duty at the station, are obtained by timely requisition on the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service, whose duty it is to obtain the necessary blanks from the proper bureau. (Reg. 954.)

392. When an officer is relieved from the Recruiting Service, or when the Recruiting station is broken up, he turns over to the person directed to relieve him, or such other person as may be indicated in the order, all the property and funds in his possession.  If no one is directed to relieve him, he will usually receive the necessary orders as to the disposition to make of such funds and property as he may be responsible for.  In the event that no one is designated, he can turn over his funds to a paymaster, or to an assistant treasurer to the credit of the United States.  Property that cannot be turned over should be sold, and the sales accounted for, and the proceeds taken up to the credit of the United States.

393. It may occur that, from some cause, the necessary funds may be delayed.  In such a case the liabilities incurred are provided for, as in all other cases, certified accounts in the required form are given, and these can be paid by the successor, or by the department to which the account appertains, should the officer be relieved, or any event occur that would prevent him from settling the account, before funds arrive.  It is the officer’s duty to guard against any event that might deprive the creditor of his just dues.

394. The following are the accounts, returns, etc., to be rendered by officers on Recruiting Service: (Reg. 962.)

To the Second Auditor of the Treasury.

 

1. Recruiting Accounts Current, monthly, with abstracts, vouchers, and one set of enlistments.  An account will be rendered by every officer who may receive funds, whether he makes expenditures or not during the month.

 

To the Third Auditor of the Treasury.

 

2. (When required to disburse quartermaster’s or subsistence funds,) such money accounts as may be required by the regulations of those departments respectively.

 

To the Adjutant General.

 

3. Monthly estimates for funds, by superintendents.

4. Recruiting account current, monthly, with an abstract of disbursements (no vouchers).  An account will be rendered by every officer who may receive funds, whether he makes expenditures or not during the month.

5. A quarterly return of stationery, books, fuel, straw, and such other property as may have been purchased with the Recruiting funds, with vouchers.

6. A monthly summary statement of money received, expended, and remaining on hand, to be transmitted on the last day of each month.

7. A muster roll of all enlisted men at the rendezvous, including the names of all who may have joined, whether by enlistment or otherwise, died, deserted, been transferred or discharged, during the two months embraced in the muster roll.—(See section 11.)

8. Tri-monthly reports of the state of the Recruiting Service by Recruiting Officers, according to the prescribed form.

9. Depot tri-monthly reports of the state of the Recruiting Service by Superintendents, according to prescribed form.

 

To the Superintendent.

 

10. A monthly return of Recruits and of the Recruiting party, accompanied with one copy of the enlistment of every Recruit enlisted within the month.

11. Duplicate muster rolls for pay of the permanent Recruiting party, which may be sent direct to the nearest paymaster, when authorized by the superintendent. A triplicate of this roll will be retained at the station.

12. Muster and descriptive rolls and an account of clothing of every detachment of recruits ordered to the principal depot.  If the recruits be ordered to proceed from the Rendezvous direct, to join any Regiment or Post, these rolls and accounts of clothing will be delivered to the officer in command of the detachment, a duplicate of each muster and descriptive roll only being then made and sent to the superintendent.

13. Monthly abstract of disbursements on account of contingencies of the Recruiting Service.  Copy to be forwarded within three days after the expiration of each month.

14. Monthly estimates for funds.

15. Estimates for clothing, and camp and garrison equipage, and for arms and accoutrements for six or twelve months, or for such times as may be directed by the Superintendent.

16. Quarterly return of clothing, camp and garrison equipage, and of all Quartermaster’s property in his possession, not including property, purchased with recruiting funds.  Copy to be sent to superintendent.

17. Tri-monthly report.  Copy sent to the Superintendent.

 

To the Quartermaster General.

 

18. (When required to disburse Quartermaster’s funds, or to receive property belonging to that department,) such money and property accounts as may be required by the regulations of that department.

 

To the Commissary General of Subsistence.

 

19. (When required to disburse subsistence funds, or to receive property belonging to that department,) such money and property accounts as may be required by the regulations of that department.

 

To the Chief of Ordnance.

 

20. A quarterly return of arms, accoutrements, ammunition, and of all Ordnance stores.

395. The following rules must be observed in making out and forwarding accounts and papers: (Reg. 963.)

1. Letters addressed to the Adjutant General “on Recruiting Service,” will be so endorsed on the envelopes, under the words “official business;” if on recruiting service for volunteers, they will be endorsed “on Volunteer Recruiting Service,” under those words.

2. The funds of one department must not be used to liquidate the debts of another.

3. If an officer’s station is changed, or he is temporarily relieved from recruiting duties, his money accounts will not be closed; they will be kept open till the end of the quarter, so that all money received and disbursed in the quarter may be embraced in one account.

4. Officers, in signing accounts and papers, must give their rank and regiment or corps.

5. Each voucher must be separately entered on the abstract of contingent expenses, and only the gross amount of the abstract must be entered on the account current.

6. No expenditure must be charged without a proper voucher to support it.

7. The receipt to the voucher must be signed, when practicable, by a principal.  When this is not practicable, the recruiting officer will add to his own certificate a statement that the agent is duly authorized to sign the receipt.

8. When an individual makes “his mark,” instead of signing his name to the receipt, it must be witnessed by a third person.

9. Expenditures must be confined to items stated in the regulations.  In an unforeseen emergency, requiring a deviation from this rule, a full explanation must be appended to the voucher for the expenditure; and, if this be not satisfactory, the account will be charged in the treasury against the Recruiting Officer.

10. In all vouchers the different items, with dates and cost of each, must be given.  To vouchers for transportation of officers, a copy of the order under which the journey was performed, must be appended.

11. In vouchers for medical attendance and medicines, the name of each patient, date of, and charge for, each visit, and for medicine furnished, must be given, and the certificate of the physician added, that the rates charged are the usual rates of the place.

12. To each voucher for notices inserted in newspapers or posters, a copy of the notice or poster will be appended.

13. Monthly accounts current must exhibit the numbers of treasury drafts and dates of their receipt; and when funds are transferred, the names of officers from whom they are received, or to whom they are turned over, with the dates of transfer.

14. Fractions of cents are not to be taken up on accounts current.  Enlistments must be filled up in a fair and legible hand.  The real name of the recruit must be ascertained, correctly spelled, and written in the same way wherever it occurs; the Christian name must not be abbreviated.  Numbers must be written, and not expressed by figures.  Each enlistment must be endorsed as indicated on the blanks furnished, the number in each month to correspond with the names alphabetically arranged.

15. Whenever a soldier re-enters the service, the officer who enlisted him will endorse on the enlistment, next below his own name and regiment, “second (or third) enlistment,” as the case may be, together with the name of the regiment and the letter of the company in which the soldier last served, and date of discharge from former enlistment.  This information the recruiting officer must obtain, if possible, from the soldier’s discharge, which he should, in all cases, be required to exhibit.—(See 22nd Article of War.)

16. Re-enlistments must be forwarded with Recruiting accounts, although any bounty due on them may not be paid.  When the bounty is subsequently paid, the soldier’s receipt is to be taken on a voucher showing date and place of re-enlistment, company and regiment, and by whom re-enlisted.

17. The filling up of, and endorsement on, the enlistment, will be in the handwriting of the Recruiting Officer, or done under his immediate inspection.

18. To facilitate the final settlement of accounts of discharged soldiers, the name of the State, as well as the town, where each recruit is enlisted, will be recorded on all muster, pay, and descriptive rolls.

19. Rolls, returns, and accounts will be accompanied by a letter of transmittal, enumerating them, and referring to no other subject.

20. All copies of papers to accompany letters or accounts should be certified by an officer as “true copies.”

21. Each voucher should be complete in itself, being accompanied by all orders and explanations necessary to make it fully understood.

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CAPTAIN.

396. THERE is no position in the Army that will give as much satisfaction in return for an honest, capable, and conscientious discharge of his duty as that of Captain, or Commanding Officer, of a company.  There is a reward in having done his full duty to his company, that no disappointment of distinction, no failure, can deprive him of; his seniors may overlook him in giving credits, unfortunate circumstances may defeat his fondest hopes, and the crown of laurel may never rest upon his brow; but the reward that follows upon the faithful discharge of his duty to his company, he cannot be deprived of, by any disaster, neglect, or injustice.

397. He receives it whenever he looks upon his little command, and sees the harmony, comfort, and discipline that prevail; he feels it when he comes to part with his men in the due course of promotion, or as they individually take their discharge after a faithful service; he remembers it when in after years, no matter if rank and honors have in the mean time fallen upon him, he meets an old soldier, who, with respect and affection, still calls him his Captain.

398. He is a small sovereign, powerful and great within his little domain, but no imbecile monarch ever suffered more from intrigues, factions, and encroachments, than an incapable Company Commander; no tyrant King must contend more with rebellions, insurrections, and defections, than an arbitrary and unjust Captain, and no wise and beneficent ruler ever derived more heartfelt homage, more faithful services, or more patriotic devotion, than a just, competent, and faithful commander receives from his company.  They will love him truly, they will obey him faithfully, and they will stand by him whilst there is life in the hour of battle.

399. To perform that duty well should be the constant study of the junior officer, from the day he enters service, so that when the responsibility falls upon him, he may be prepared for it.  What has already been laid down for Lieutenants, of course is understood to be included in the qualifications for a Captain, and only those matters peculiar to the Captain or Lieutenant acting in that capacity, will be alluded to under this head.

400. They are the following:

Company Commander.

Officer of the Day.

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COMPANY COMMANDER.

 

401. THE command of a company divides itself into two kinds of duty, requiring very different capacity, viz.: Government and Administration.  The former requires force of character, judgment and discretion, and has often been well performed without much capacity for the latter.  Administration requires a certain amount of knowledge absolutely indispensable to a discharge of the duty.

402. GOVERNMENT.—Under this head may be included instruction in tactics and discipline, the preservation of order and subordination, and the cultivation of a military spirit and pride in the profession among the men.  It involves the appointing and reduction of non-commissioned officers, and the subject of rewards and punishments.

403. Manner and deportment have a great influence on the men, and to be attractive in this respect is not within the power of every man, and those who can be so without genuine merit, are rare indeed.  But it is within the power of every man to lay down certain principles, and be guided by them in the control of the company, that will command respect and obedience, much more so than personal manner.

404. A strict attention to duty, an honest regard for the men, and a constant self-respect, guided by equal and exact justice to all, will command the most insubordinate set of men, provided it is accompanied by sufficient knowledge of the duties of the position.  Ignorance in this respect cannot be compensated for by any talent for other things, however capable.

405. A knowledge of tactics is too often considered all that is necessary; if this were so, in a few weeks the most indifferent militia could be made a veteran command.  Three or four weeks should suffice for teaching all the movements contained in the school of the company.  There are a certain number of lessons which may be fully taught, so far as a knowledge thereof is concerned, at a single exercise.  Four drills a day would soon master the subject, if nothing more were necessary.

406. In truth, however, tactics is not the end, it is only the means of acquiring discipline, and attaining the control of the troops.  Even after the exercises are fully understood by officers and men, it is necessary to repeat them under every variety of circumstances, to feel certain that the end has been accomplished.  The best drilled troops may run away the first time under fire.

407. The instruction of a company in tactics is best attained by instructing the non-commissioned officers in the school of the soldier, and then require them to instruct their squads or sections.  When this is completed, the squads are united, and the school of the company is gone through with.  Theoretical instruction should always be combined with the practical, and the non-commissioned officers should always be required to recite on their exercises before practising them.

408. The Lieutenants should be required to hear the recitations, and superintend the drills.  They should also be required to be present when the company drills are gone through with, and be prepared to take the Captain’s place whenever he may be absent.  To ascertain the merits of the different non-commissioned officers, a record of the recitations should be kept, after the manner of the form given for keeping the record of examination (page 69).

409. The company can only be kept in proper discipline by having good non-commissioned officers, who must be properly controlled and instructed in their duty first, before the men can be expected to do well.  They must be fully established and sustained in their position, otherwise they are of no avail.

410. The right to recommend for appointment belongs to the Captain, or Company Commander (Reg. 73).  He may make a temporary appointment, subject to the approval of the Regimental Commander.  This division of the authority is a wise provision.  It makes the men dependent upon the Captain for promotion, whilst the position is so far within the control of the Regimental Commander, that the Company Commander cannot exercise an arbitrary or unjust power, otherwise he might reappoint a non-commissioned officer who had been justly reduced, or he might exercise an undue favoritism.

411. The same principle holds good in the reduction of non-commissioned officers (Reg. 79).  The Colonel and Captain must both be united in the opinion that the non-commissioned officer should be reduced, before it can be done arbitrarily, and the Court-Martial is a resort for either, in case they disagree on the propriety of the reduction, whilst the non-commissioned officer may find a friend and defender in one or the other, as either may prove unjust or vindictive.

412. In an illustrative sense the Captain is the proprietor of the company, and the First Sergeant is the foreman.  All orders and instructions should, therefore, pass through the First Sergeant, from the Captain to the other non-commissioned officers and men, otherwise errors and conflicts of authority will occur.  The First Sergeant must know, and should be held responsible for a knowledge of the whereabouts and duty of every man in the company; it is necessary that he should know, in order that he may give credits, and be able to make out the different details, in order that the duty may fall on all alike, as nearly as possible.

413. The Captain must always sustain his First Sergeant, and the other non-commissioned officers, as far as is consistent with justice; above all things he should not appear to take sides with the men against them.  If the non-commissioned officers do wrong, they may be punished for it as any other man in the company, but where the matter is simply an error of judgment, the non-commissioned officer should be privately corrected, instructed, or reproved, as may be deemed necessary, but never in the presence of the men.  The men must be taught to respect their non-commissioned officers, and to recognize their authority to the fullest extent.

414. The men must be taught that even if a non-commissioned officer is in error, it gives them no aggressive rights; it for example, he should strike a soldier, justly or not, it does not give the soldier the right to strike back.  He must make his complaint to the Captain, who is then duty bound to see justice done the aggrieved party.  If the principle were recognized that a soldier could take his grievances into his own hands against those in authority, the Army would become an unruly and ungovernable mob, in a very short time.

415. The First Sergeant may be authorized to arrest non-commissioned officers or confine private soldiers without first reporting the offense, assuming the arrest and confinement to be by the Captain’s order.  But this must be fully understood between them, as the Sergeant has no right, under the Laws and Regulations, to make such arrest and confinement.  He should be required, however, to report an arrest or confinement so made with the least possible delay, to the commander of the company, in order that the Captain may have the earliest opportunity of investigating and determining whether he will sustain his Sergeant or not.

416. None of the other Sergeants should be empowered with such authority, but they should report the case to the First Sergeant, whose duty it should be to investigate and act in the case, according to its nature, until the matter can be reported to the Captain.

417. The certainty of reward and appreciation is the great stimulant to the faithful and meritorious among the men, whilst the equally certain punishment consequent upon the commission of an offense or a neglect of duty, is the best means of intimidation and compulsion of the unruly and unreliable.  Those who do their duty well, and are guilty of no offenses, should be encouraged and rewarded, and an invidious distinction should be made against those men who require always to be watched, and who never do their duty except under the eye of their superiors.

418. There may be many meritorious men, whom it is not possible to promote to non-commissioned officers, who may, however, be greatly encouraged by the consideration with which they are treated, in the extension of indulgences, such as furloughs, passes, details for special or distinct and desirable duty; complimentary remarks in the presence of the company, and mention in reports and orders.  It is not natural to man to labor against hope, and the best of men give up after long-continued effort, without encouragement.

419. Punishments should not only answer the purpose of intimidating and preventing the commission of offenses or crimes, but they should be administered with a view to effect the reformation of the offender.  The punishments should, therefore, be of a character and degree depending upon the offense.  The punishment should not be debasing in its nature, unless the offense has a similar character, and the penalty should be proportionate to the violation, for where it is too great for the offense committed, its tendency is to foster friends and harborers of the offender, and thus encourage the repetition of the act.  The punishment should also be legitimate, for where an officer violates regulations and law in such a case, he is setting the example for that which he assumes to correct.

420. There are many irregularities and errors that require to be noticed in a company, that are not sufficiently serious to require an arraignment before a field officer, or Court-Martial.  To treat these as they deserve, and yet not be arbitrary, requires much discretion and judgment in the Company Commander.  Whatever course is pursued, it must be free from passion, and in accordance with justice.  If the Captain permits his feelings to manifest themselves, the moral effect of his treatment will be lost upon the men, whether it be for or against the offender.

421. No circumstances can justify the humiliation of the men unnecessarily; to address the offender abusively, and with passion, is worse than useless; a quiet, calm, and resolute review of the error, and its consequences clearly and intelligibly stated to the offender, will impress him far more than to tell him with curses and oaths, what a villain he is.  No means should be resorted to that are not legitimate and justified by the circumstances of the case.

422. Favoritism should be avoided, and all preferences should be confined to rewards for meritorious services, to the encouragement of good soldiers; and, by the deprivation of indulgences, and the certainty of punishment, bad soldiers should be deterred from neglect, carelessness, and more serious offenses.

423. Routine, properly enforced and regulated, is a great promoter of discipline.  Art. XXVIII, Reg., provides for the hours of service and roll-calls, in garrison, which is adhered to on the march, and in camp, as nearly as practicable.  The moment that roll-calls, and other daily duties are neglected, or carelessly performed, the company will begin to decline in its reputation for discipline.

424. Reveille is the first act of the daily routine, at which all the officers and men of the company should be present, that are for duty.  A neglect to enforce the attendance of all leads to greater and greater dereliction on the part of others.  If the Captain fails to attend, the Lieutenants will soon omit their attendance, and then the First Sergeant will occasionally leave the roll to be called by a duty sergeant, and so on until reveille becomes a perfect farce.  The customary time for reveille is between daylight and sunrise, throughout the years; it is subject to variations on the march, and during a campaign.  Inspection under arms, particularly in the field, is highly useful, as the men must prepare their arms and equipments the night before, and place them conveniently for the morning; in the event of a night attack, this habit enables them to find their arms readily at the time of alarm.

425. Police Call generally succeeds Reveille, when grounds are cleaned up and placed in order.  Each company takes care of its own company grounds, either by a regular detail of a non-commissioned officer and two or three men, or by requiring all to keep a certain amount of ground or room in order.

426. Stable Call, in the Cavalry and Light Artillery, corresponds to the police call in Infantry, and in the morning takes place immediately after reveille, and the duty lasts about one hour.  A commissioned officer should always be present.  The company is formed, and the roll called, and the men are then marched to the stables where the horses are groomed and fed, and the stables policed and cleaned.  The company should be divided into four squads or sections, each under a Sergeant, with Corporals to take the place of the Sergeant when he is absent.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2006.


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